Can I develop a container on a Raspberry Pi and deploy it later on a netPI?

Yes absolutely, this is expressly intended.

The CPUs of netPI and Pi 3 are equal. Docker guarantees that containers run the same on platforms of the same architecture. So containers intended to run on netPI finally can be developed and built on a Pi 3 at a reasonable invest of just $30. We feel this is a convenient method to make suitability tests of software on a low-budget hardware first before shifting it onto an industrialized netPI at any later time.

How you install Docker on your Pi 3 under Raspbian OS is described here. It is just a single shell script from the web that installs everything you need in a minute:

curl -sSL https://get.docker.com | sh

When installed a simple test loads a Raspbian OS container onto your Pi and jumps into it (the weird thing is you have now running Raspbian under Raspbian)

docker run -ti resin/rpi-raspbian:latest /bin/bash

entering exit in the container let's you return back to your system Raspbian. All Docker command line (CLI) options such as run are explained here.